are phrases and words that have been used in so many different contexts that their core meanings have been shattered and the phrase or word means essentially whatever the speaker or writer wants it to mean. Listeners and readers, however, may interpret the term of art by the use of the term in their familiar context. Viable is a word that means many different things in different rhetorical environments—a fetus can be viable, a candidate can have a viable chance to win, and cable is a viable option to satellite television. Similarly, terms of art have similar problems as generalizations, except that terms of art actually have very precise meanings; it’s just that there are too many competing meanings.
are words or terms that have meanings that are created by multiple concepts. For example, the word “honor” is an abstraction created by other words like respect, loyal, devotion, moral/ethical and, depending on its use, other words and terms. When an argument is premised on an abstraction, the argument is built on a term that carries too many possible meanings. Nice, polite, support the troops, protect the family, cut taxes, appeasers, and so on are all abstractions; they carry multiple meanings. Unless abstractions are firmly and clearly defined, their use supporting evidence or the logic of an argument is questionable.
Considering the right structure for your essay is one of the key points of success. Sticking to a recommended essay structure is the only way to properly outline and write it, paragraph by paragraph from the introduction to conclusion, without mistakes.
There are two recommended patterns for a comparison essay: point-by-point (or "alternating") pattern and subject-by-subject (or "block") pattern.
1)The following pages will provide you with several effective ways of organizing information in your essays. Oftentimes, when you know who your audience is and what your purpose is for writing (which is called your rhetorical situation), you can begin to consider the organization of what is going to be in your paper, how you will introduce your paper, and what to write for your conclusion. The following rhetorical patterns will help you answer these questions.
. Maybe the incidents you are using for examples all happened in one especially lousy day. Maybe they all happened during one week or month or season. Maybe it was snowing for some and raining for others. Consider how time relates to your placement of the examples in the paper.
Consider the point of your essay. What is your main point, or your thesis? As you draft your introduction, remember your purpose for using examples. Put your thesis at the end of the introduction. This is where many readers expect it. What is your thesis statement? Let’s say, for example, that your thesis statement was, “If you are working the evening shift at MacDonald’s, you are likely to see some of the worst behavior in customers.”
. Were there any connections between the examples? Let’s say you are writing about a summer job at a fast food restaurant. Did, for instance, some of the examples involve, let’s say, relationships between coworkers, between workers and supervisors, between customers and workers, or between customers waiting for food or waiting to order? How could you categorize your examples?
Organization: Normally, writers use at least a few examples to support their main point, unless they are using one extended example, which might function similar to an analogy. Examples are usually presented in body paragraphs according to their chronology, their spatial relationship, or their emphatic order (which means that you will use your most powerful examples at the end of your essay, after your reader has already accepted other, less-intense examples. Your conclusion should reinforce your main idea, since your reader has just finished reading examples, and your examples, rather than your main idea, might not be the first thing in your reader’s mind. Finally, your conclusion might provide implications and solutions and summarize your essay's main point.
. Are some of the examples really shocking (like loud voices, yelling, and anger) while others are simply a mundane kind of bad behavior (like not washing hands after using the bathroom)? Can you organize your examples so that they “lead” to your conclusion? Can you put one of the more common kinds of bad behavior in the introduction, so that you can use it as a template for the rest of the examples of bad behavior in the paper?
Conventions: Since some of the most effective examples can originate in your own experience or in the experiences of people you know, you must decide if your readers will accept examples presented in the first person. Some readers expect an academic exemplification essay to be written primarily, if not almost entirely, in the third person. Consider your audience and your purpose before you generate and organize examples. Readers will also expect that the examples you present will not distract them from your main point, so make certain that there is a clear relationship between your main point and your examples. Effective topic and transition sentences in your body paragraphs can help you keep this relationship intact for your readers.
What is important to remember as you draft your conclusion is your purpose for writing. Ask yourself questions about what you hoped to accomplish by using examples? Were you trying to get your readers to reconsider an opinion or belief? Were you trying to get your readers to change their actions? Return to your primary purpose and find a way to restate it in an interesting manner so that your readers will understand, when they finish reading the last of your examples, exactly what is expected of them. It tends to violate academic conventions to bring up any new examples or information in the conclusion (because it causes your readers to wonder if it really is the conclusion or if you should have reorganized your paper in light of the new ideas/examples).