Now, narrow down your topic: Once you’ve chosen a topic, ask yourself if it’s narrow enough for you to tackle in the paper or honors thesis you will be writing. Narrow topics generally result in the best papers. One important consideration is the availability of material. Therefore, before making a final decision on your topic, do some initial research to find out the type, quality, and quantity of information available. Finally, how much time do you have to write your paper? The earlier you begin your paper, the more thorough the treatment your topic will receive. If you can’t begin your paper early in the semester, consider limiting your topic so you can deal with it adequately.
Structure your first paragraph in this way, and you’re well on your way to effectively indicating that you understand the assignment, are organized, have considered the complexities of the issue, and can effectively use standard written English—all components of a strong essay that's destined for a great score.
If there are no data provided to support a given statement of result or observation, consider adding more data, or deleting the unsupported "observation."
Examine figure(s) or table(s) pertaining to the result(s).
Assess whether: How does one fairly and accurately indicate who has made what contributions towards the results and interpretations presented in your paper?: by referencing, authorship, and acknowledgements.
Validating the questionnaire: several drafts of the questionnaire went through a series of validation processes, following the questionnaire design guidelines proposed by Oppenheim (1992), Dornyei (2003) and Bradburn et al. (2004). [I also took several steps to increase the validity of the questionnaire answers ]
Assignment 2 Paper- Validity: External, internal, construct
Based on your topic of interest, write a paper in which you compare and contrast the characteristics of external, internal, and construct validity. Also, please identify the threats to external and construct validity. Please discuss how validity issues could impact your envisioned research.
It is then developed in the main body of the paper, and mentioned again in the discussion section (and, of course, in the abstract and conclusions).
Some suggestions on how to shorten your paper:
“Validity is one of the most important concepts in survey research. Without validity, you have meaningless results and have wasted a great deal of time, energy, and money. Much of the confusion surrounding validity is probably due to the cavalier manner in which the term frequently is used. This Research Note presents general issues surrounding validity, as well as different types of validity.”
Therefore, you should construct your paper so that it can be understood by skimming, i.e., the conclusions, as written in your abstract, can be understood by study of the figures and captions.
“As noted by Sohlberg & Mateer (2001), realistically a measure cannot fully capture all the relevant aspects of a construct and, therefore, more than one measure would be required in order to acquire a comprehensive appreciation of the construct. Similarly to face validity, the evaluation of content validity is based on subjective judgments made by experts. Further evidence would be, however, needed in order to support the value of the measure in relation to the theoretical construct it is supposed to measure. “
then work on filling in background material and lab work during the fall so that you're prepared to write and present your research during the spring .
“In this study categories were exhaustive and exclusive, meaning that all relevant concepts were represented in the coding scheme, which may provide an indication of good content validity (Neuendorf, 2002). Incorporating a qualitative study where categories were developed inductively from the manifest content of the text of content analysis may have also contributed to achieving content validity (Rourke & Anderson, 2004). An attempt was also made to provide thorough information about inter-rater agreement, training procedures for coders and examples of the coding scheme. As Rourke & Anderson (2004) suggested, this is another important step to be taken towards establishing validity. Empirical evidence for validity can also be gathered mainly through examination of group differences and through the use of alternative methods of data collection to corroborate the results of content analysis (Rourke & Anderson, 2004). This study showed that the developed coding scheme was sensitive to the differences between the different rehabilitation programmes, providing further evidence for its validity.”
Validity is described as the degree to which a research study measures what it intends to measure. There are two main types of validity, internal and external. Internal validity refers to the validity of the measurement and test itself, whereas external validity refers to the ability to generalise the findings to the target population. Both are very important in analysing the appropriateness, meaningfulness and usefulness of a research study. However, here I will focus on the validity of the measurement technique (i.e. internal validity).
To assess content validity, beside checking the clarity of the items, 5 experts ( responses were obtained from 5 tesol experts to examine ….) in the field of TESOL were asked to assess the content of questionnaire in terms of items relevance to the toping being measured. In other words, the experts were asked to examine how well the questionnaire items covered the content of the subject being measured; specifically how well the items identify the factors related to writing in English in Saudi context.